IJSEA Archive (Volume 7, Issue 2)
International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications (IJSEA) (Volume 7, Issue 2 February 2018)
Qualitative Contours: A New Geochemical Method for Preliminary Mineral Exploration
Keywords: Qualitative contours, descriptive data, Exploration method, geochemistry, (C-V) Fractal, Qaleh-Zari
The target in this paper is introduction and application of a new exploration method to locate and highlight mineral deposits and mineralization trends. Generally exploration methods could be categorized into two major groups; quantitative and qualitative methods. Although many attempts have been taken to progress the first group, the second one has not been considered and improved as it should have been. This research offers a new method named ‘Qualitative Contours’ which is descriptive rather than being numeric. This new method is applied to delineate mineralization trends and deposits locations in Qaleh-Zari area. The selected study area is located north west of Qaleh-Zari copper deposit. This area is selected to determine how effective this method is to find mineralization trends and the known Qaleh-Zari deposit. Theis new method “Qualitative Contours” successfully located Qaleh-Zari deposit and mineralization trends in the area. Beside the main function of this method, other beneficial performances are discussed such as lithology modeling and erosion levels estimation which are highly correlated to field observations in the area. In this research, locating the well-known Qaleh-Zari copper deposit as the result of the Qualitative Contours method is discussed and in order to prove the accuracy of such locating, Concentration-Volume (C-V) Fractal modeling is used to prove copper anomalies numerically.
Khoei, N., Ghorbani, M., Taj-Baksh, P., 1999. Copper Deposits in Iran. GSI, Tarhe-Ketab (421 pp., (in Persian)).
 Bazin, D., Hubner, H., 1969. Copper deposits in Iran. Geological Survey of Iran, Internal Report No. 13, p. 195 (in English)
 Agharezaei, M. and Hezarkhani, A. (2016) Delineation of Geochemical Anomalies Based on Cu by the Boxplot as an Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) Method and Concentration-Volume (C-V) Fractal Modeling in Mesgaran Mining Area, Eastern Iran. Open Journal of Geology, 6, 1269-1278.
 Mandelbort, B.B. (1982) The Fractal Geometry of Nature. Freeman, San Francisco, 460 p.
 Cheng, Q., Agterberg, F.P. and Ballantyne, S.B. (1994) The Separation of Geochemical Anomalies from Background by Fractal Methods. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 51, 109-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-6742(94)90013-2
 Li, C., Ma, T. and Shi, J. (2003) Application of a Fractalmethod Relating Concentrations and Distances for Separation of Geochemical Anomalies from Background. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 77, 167-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0375-6742(02)00276-5
[7[ Alavi, M., 1996. Tectonostratigraphic synthesis and structural style of the Alborz Mountains system in northern Iran. J. Geodyn. 11, 1–33.
 Berberian, M., King, G.C.P., 1981. Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran. Can. J. Earth Sci. 18 (2), 210–265.
 Meshkani, A., Mehrabi, B,. Yaghubpur, A., Sadeghi, M., 2013. 'Recognition of the regional lineaments of Iran: Using geospatial data and their implications for exploration of metallic ore deposits', Ore Geology Reviews, 55(0169-1368), pp. 48–63.
 Sengör, A.M.C., 1987. Tectonics of the Tethysides: orogenic collage development in a collisional setting. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 15, 213–244.
 Stocklin, J., 1968. Structural history and tectonics of Iran: a review. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull. 52, 1229–1258.
 Stocklin, J., 1977. Structural correlation of the Alpine ranges between Iran and central Asia. J. Geol. Soc. Fr. Mem. H. Ser. 8, 333 353.
 Stocklin, J., 1974. A-Northern Iran: Alborz mountains. Mesozoic – Cenozoic orogenic Belt, data for orogenic studies (Ed.), The TRANSMED Atlas: The Mediterranean Region from Crust to Mantle. Springer, New York, pp. 53–80. In: Spenncer, A.M. (Ed.), Geol. Soc., London, Sp. Pub4. Scottish Academic Press, pp. 213–234.
 Sengör, A.M.C., 1984. The Cimmeride orogenic system and the tectonics of Eurasia. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap. 195, 1–82
 Sengör, A.M.C., Altiner, D., Cin, A., Ustaomer, T., Hsu, K.J., 1988. Origin and assembly of the Tethyside orogenic collage at the expense of Gondwanaland. In: Audley- Charles, M.G., Hallaml, A. (Eds.), Gondwana and Tethys. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ. 37, pp. 81–119.
 Davouzadeh, M., Schmidt, K., 1984. A review of the Mesozoic paleogeography and paleotectonic evolution of Iran. N. Jahrb. Geol. Palaontol. Abh. 68, 182–207.
 Kazmin, V.G., 1991. Collision and rifting in the Tethys Ocean: geodynamic implications. Tectonophysics 196, 371–384.
 Boulin, J., 1991. Structures in Southwest Asia and evolution of the eastern Tethys. Tectonophysics 196, 211–268.
 Alavi, M., 1994. Tectonic of the Zagros orogenic belt of Iran: new data and interpretations. Tectonophysics 229, 211–239.
 Ramezani, J., Tucker, R.D., 2003. The Saghand region, central Iran: U–Pb geochronology, petrogenesis and implications for Gondwana tectonics. Am. J. Sci. 303, 622–665.
 Stampfli, G.M., Borel, G.D., 2004. The TRANSMED transects inspace and time: constraints on the paleotectonic evolution of the Mediterranean domain. In: Cavazza, W., et al.
 Bagheri, S., Stampfli, G.M., 2008. A new litho-structural subdivision for the Palaeotethys terranes in central Iran (Anarak, Jandaq and Posht-e-Badamareas) and its geodynamic implications.
 Hassanzadeh, J., Stockli, D.F., Horton, B.K., Axen, G.J., Stockli, L.D., Grove, M., Schmitt, A.K., Walker, J.D., 2008. U–Pb zircon geochronology of late Neoproterozoic–Early Cambrian granitoids in Iran: implications for paleogeography, magmatism, and exhumation history of Iranian basement. Tectonophysics 451, 71–96.
 Omrani, J., Agard, P., Whitechurch, H., Benoit, M., Prouteau, G., Jolivet, L., 2008. Arcmagmatism and subduction history beneath the Zagros Mountains, Iran: a new report of adakites and geodynamic consequences. Lithos 106, 380–398.
 Agard, P., Yamato, P., Jolivet, L., Burov, E., 2009. Exhumation of oceanic blueschists and eclogites in subduction zones: timing and mechanisms. Earth Sci. Rev. 92, 53–79.
 Hassan-Nezhad, Ali A. and Farid Moore., 2005. "A Stable Isotope And Fluid Inclusion Study Of The Qaleh-Zaricu–Au–Ag Deposit, Khorasan Province, Iran". Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 27.6: 805-818.
 Forster, H., 1978. Mesozoic–Cenozoic metallogenesis in Iran. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 35, 443–455.
 Hezarkhani, A., 2007. Geochemistry of the Enjerd skarn and its association with copper mineralization, northwestern Iran. Int. Geol. Rev. 48, 892–909.
 Hezarkhani, A., 2008. A fluid inclusion investigation hydrothermal evolution of the Miduk porphyry copper system, Kerman, Iran. Int. Geol. Rev. 50, 665–684.
 Karimzadeh Somarin, A., Moayyed, M., 2002. Granite- and gabbrodioriteassociated skarn deposits of NW Iran. Ore Geol. Rev. 20, 127–138.
 Mollai, H., Sharma, R., Pe-Piper, G., 2009. Copper mineralization around the Ahar batholith, north of Ahar (NW Iran): evidence for fluid evolution and the origin of the skarn ore deposit. Ore Geol. Rev. 35, 401–414.
 Shafiei, B., Haschke, M., Shahabpour, J., 2009. Recycling of orogenic arc crust triggers porphyry Cu mineralization in Kerman Cenozoic arc rocks, southeastern Iran. Miner. Deposita 44, 265–283.
 Shafiei, B., 2010. Lead isotope signatures of the igneous rocks and porphyry copper deposits from the Kerman Cenozoic magmatic arc (SE Iran), and their magmatic– metallogenetic implications. Ore Geol. Rev. 38, 27–36.
 Shahabpour, J., 1982. Aspects of alteration and mineralization at the Sar Cheshmeh copper–molybdenum deposit, Kerman, Iran. (Unpublished PhD thesis) Leeds University, Leeds, U.K.(342 pp.).
 Waterman, G.C., Hamilton, R.L., 1975. The Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper deposit. Econ. Geol. 70, 568–576.
 Zarasvandi, A., Liaghat, S., Zentilli, M., 2005. Porphyry copper deposits of the Urumieh– Dokhtar magmatic arc, Iran. In: Porter, T.M. (Ed.), Super Porphyry Copper & Gold Deposits, A Global Perspective. PGC Publishing, Adelide (13 pp.).
 Zarasvandi, A., Liaghat, S., Zentilli, M., 2007. Geology of the Darreh-Zerreshk and Ali- Abad porphyry copper deposits, Central Iran. Int. Geol. Rev. 47, 620–646.
 Karimpour, M.A., Khin Zaw, D.L. Huston., 2005. 'S-C-O Isotopes, Fluid Inclusion Microthermometry, and the Genesis of Ore Bearing Fluids at Qaleh-Zari Fe-Oxide Cu-Au-Ag Mine, Iran', Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran, 16(2)(1016-1104), pp. 153-168 (2005).
 Tarkian M., Lotfi M., and Baumann A. Magmatic copper and Lead Zinc ore deposits in the Central Lut, Eastern Iran. N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Abh., 168(2/3): 497-523 (1984).
 Bierlein, F.P., Murphy, F.C., Weinberg, R.F., Lees, T., 2006. Distribution of orogenic gold deposits in relation to fault zones and gravity gradients: targeting tools applied to the Eastern Goldfields, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Miner. Deposita 41, 107–126.
 Grauch, V.J.S., Rodriguez, B.D., Bankley, V., 2003. Evidence for a Battle Mountain–Eureka crustal fault zone, north-central Nevada, and its relation to Neoproterozoic–Early Paleozoic continental breakup. J. Geophys. Res. 108 (B3), 2140.
 Groves, D.I., Vielreicher, R.M., Goldfarb, R.J., Condie, K.C., 2005. Controls on the heterogeneous distribution of mineral deposits through time. In: McDonald, I., Noyce, A.J., Butler, I.B., Herrington, R.J., Polya, D.A. (Eds.), Mineral Deposits and Earth Evolution: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 248, pp. 71–101.
 Groves, D.I., Bierlein, F.P., 2007. Geodynamic settings of mineral deposit systems. J. Geol. Soc. 164, 19–30.
 Haynes, D.W., 2002. Giant iron oxide–copper–gold deposits: are they in distinctive geological settings? In: Cooke, D.R., Pongratz, J. (Eds.), Giant Ore Deposits: Characteristics, Genesis and Exploration. : CODES, Special Publication, 4. Hobart, Tasmania, pp. 57–77.
 Kerrich, R., Goldfarb, R.J., Richards, J., 2005. Metallogenic provinces in an evolving geodynamic framework. Economic Geology 100th Anniversary. 1097–1136.
 Sillitoe, R.H., 1972. Relation of metal provinces in western America to subduction of oceanic lithosphere. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 83, 813–818.
 Sillitoe, R.H., 2000. Gold-rich porphyry deposits: descriptive and genetic models and their role in exploration and discovery. Rev. Econ. Geol. 13, 315–345.
 Billingsley, P., Locke, A., 1941. Structure of ore districts in the continental framework. Am. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng. Trans. 144, 9 64.
 Kutina, J., 1969. Hydrothermal ore deposits in the western United States: a new concept of structural control of distribution. Science 165, 1113–1119.
 Kutina, J., 1971. The Hudson Bay Paleolineament and anomalous concentration of metals along it. Econ. Geol. 66, 314–325.
 Kutina, J., Fabbri, G., 1972. Relationship of structural lineaments and mineral occurrences in Abitibi area of the Canadian Shield. Geol. Surv. Can. Pap. 71-9, 36.
 Kutina, J., 1974a. Structural control of volcanic ore deposits in the context of global tectonics. Bull. Volcanol. 38, 1038–1069.
 Kutina, J., 1974b. Relationship between the distribution of big endogenic ore deposits and the basement fracture pattern. Examples from four continents. Proceedings of the First International Conference on the New Basement Tectonics: Utah Geol. Assoc. Publ., vol. 5, pp. 565–593.
 Kutina, J., 1975. Tectonic development and metallogeny of Madagascar with reference to the fracture pattern of the Indian Ocean. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 86, 582–592.
 Kutina, J., 1980. Regularities in the distribution of ore deposits along the Mendocino latitude Western United States. Global Tecton. Metallog. 1, 134–193.
 Kutina, J., 1983a. Global tectonics andmetallogeny; deep roots of some ore-concentrating fracture zones. A possible relation to small-scale convective cells at the base of lithosphere. Adv. Space Res. 3, 201–214.
 Kutina, J., 1983b. Similarities in the deep-seated controls of mineralization between the United States and China. Global Tecton. Metallog. 2, 111–142.
 Kutina, J., 1986. The role of basement tectonics in the distribution of some major ore deposits of Mesozoic and Cenozoic ages. In: Jiqing, Huang (Ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Geology in Connection of the 60th Anniversary of the Geological Society of China.
 Kutina, J., 1988. Criteria indicating a block structure of the upper mantle and its role in metallogeny. Proceedings of the Seventh Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium, pp. 111–120.
 Favorskaya, M.A., Vinogradov, N.V., 1991. Geological evolution of ore-concentrating lineaments. Global Tecton. Metallog. 1 (1–2), 75–84.
 Richards, J.P., 2000. Lineaments revisited. Soc. Econ. Geol. Newsl. 42 (1), 14–20.
 Chernicoff, C.J., Richards, J.P., Zappettini, E.O., 2002. Crustal lineament control on magmatism and mineralization in northwestern Argentina: geological, geophysical, and remote sensing evidence. Ore Geol. Rev. 21, 127–155.
 Sillitoe, R.H., 2010. Porphyry copper systems. Econ. Geol. 105, 3–41.
 Daymehvar, M., 1996. Study of geology, mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of Qaleh-Zari copper deposit. Unpublished MSc Thesis. Teacher Training University, p. 133 (in Farsi).
 Sadaghyani-Avval, F., 1976. Etude ge´ologique de la re´gion de la mine de Khal- Eh-Zari (Iran) mineralisation et inclusions fluids. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Universite´ de Nancy, Nancy, p. 165.
 Suzuki, Y., Ogawa, K., Akiyama, N., 1976. Copper ores from the Qaleh-Zari Mine, Iran. Mining Geology 385, 26–391.
 Moore, F., Hassan-Nezhad, A.A., 1994. Fluid inclusion study of mineralization at the Qaleh-Zari Mine, South Khorasan, Iran. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology 18, 213–223.
 Karimpour, M.H., Zaw, K., 2000. Geothermometry and physicochemical condition of Qaleh-Zari Cu–Au ore bearing solution based on chlorite composition and fluid inclusion study. Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy 8, 3–22 (in Farsi with English abstract).
 Khatib, M, M,. 1999. The relationship between shear deformation and mineral veins in Qaleh-Zari. In the congerence of recognition of mining potentials in eastern Iran, Birjand.
title = " Qualitative Contours: A New Geochemical Method for Preliminary Mineral Exploration ",
journal = "International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications (IJSEA)",
volume = "7",
number = "2",
pages = "008 - 019",
year = "2018",
author = " Mohammadreza Agharezaei, Hossein Hajari, Ardeshir Hezarkhani ",